This article covers the history of Polish Intelligence services dating back to the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth. Though the first official Polish government service entrusted with espionage , intelligence and counter-intelligence was not formed until , Poland and later the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth had developed networks of informants in neighbouring countries. Envoys and ambassadors had also gathered intelligence, often using bribery. Such agents included the 17th-century Polish poet Jan Andrzej Morsztyn. The hetmans were responsible for intelligence-gathering in the Ottoman Empire , its vassal states and disputed territories such as Wallachia , Moldavia and Transylvania. Intelligence networks also operated in Muscovy and among the restless Cossacks. Kulczycki is reported to have received as reward for his services the Turks’ supplies of coffee beans and to have established Vienna’s first coffee house. During the period when Poland had been partitioned beginning in , until by three adjacent empires, intelligence played an important role in patriotic Poles’ surveillance of their occupiers and in their planning and conduct of successive Polish uprisings.
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However, it still sets its own VAT rate. Non-resident traders providing taxable supplies in Poland are required to comply with the local VAT rules and rates. In terms of accounting and recording, this covers:. The tax point time of supply rules in Poland determine when the VAT is due. It is then payable to the tax authorities 7 days after the VAT reporting period end monthly or quarterly.
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Poland has been formally designated as a member of the Visa Waiver Program. The Electronic System for Travel Authorization (ESTA) is available now.
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Originally located in Polish Downtown , the PAA was founded as the Polish Welfare Association in by a group of prominent Polish businessmen and professionals to provide Polish language social services in Chicago. Today, the agency’s bilingual and bicultural services remain critical to meet the growing needs of Chicago’s Polish community. The Polish community constitutes the second largest ethnic group in the Chicago area. The mission of the Polish American Association, a human service agency, is to serve the diverse needs of the Polish community in the Chicago metro area by providing resources for changing lives, with emphasis on assisting immigrants.
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SSA Publication No. An agreement effective March 1, , between the United States and Poland improves social security protection for people who work or have worked in both countries. It helps many people who, without the agreement, would not be eligible for monthly retirement, disability or survivors benefits under the social security system of one or both countries. It also helps people who would otherwise have to pay social security taxes to both countries on the same earnings.
The agreement covers social security taxes including the U.
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I am meeting someone for the first time and I want to make a good impression. What would be good discussion topics? The combination between being reserved and warm of Polish people varies between rural and urban Poland. People from the country tend to be very suspicious of strangers at first but if they warm to you their hospitality and friendliness is likely to overwhelm you. If one of your ancestors is Polish or someone related to you is eg. Talking about the beauty of Poland yes we like it when you tell us our country is lovely is also a good topic of conversation.
Be prepared for some false modesty. A hint: it is commonly accepted that all of Poland, with the exception of Warsaw, is pretty. Do not discuss religion with most Poles. Declarations about religion may not, in fact, be reflected in the way people lead they life. Other issues to avoid are abortion which is practically illegal in Poland ; gay rights, drugs. For Poles a sense of humour is important.
They will be cracking the jokes all the time and telling you jokes.